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Posted on November 10th, 2007 by Sanjit Anand ||Email This Post Email This Post

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This is one of the basic areas from management books. In fact lot of people have requested some more information on SCM, OPM and other manufacturing area. therefore,I take this opportunity, as this is one of my favorite topic, as I started my first job in PPC (Production Planning &Control) department of a big steel company a decades ago, so I hope I will surly help in giving a clear picture of SCM. Let’s start with basic and gradually will move into ERP arena:

SCM is defined as combination of art and science that goes into improving the way your company find the raw components that needs to make a product or services and deliver it to customer. In Business word this art and science become functions that an organization undertake.

If you are IT guys you can understood SCM as:

Systems that support manufacturing managers in making decisions that optimize the trade off between capital tied up in stocks and inventories, versus the ability to deliver goods at prices and delivery dates agreed with customers.

In principle and reality, both inwards logistics operations to acquire materials to make products and outwards logistics operations shipping finished goods to final customers are monitored.


As per Supply-Chain Operations Reference-model (SCOR®) which has been developed by Supply-Chain Council. This model organized and focused on the five primary management

  1. PLAN
  3. MAKE

1. Plan: This is vital part of SCM philosophy, where the companies normally need to make strategy for managing all the resource that go towards fulfilling the customer demand for the product and services that they offers. A big piece of planning is developing a set of matrices to monitor the Supply chain so that it would be efficient, cost effective and deliver high quality and value to the customer.

2. Source: It means processes that procure goods and services to meet planned or actual demand. This part of SCM consists of selecting right suppliers that will deliver the good and services that need to create your product. Developing a set of pricing, delivery and payment process with supplier is important. Also this will also take care of managing the inventory of goods, and services you receive from your suppliers, including receiving shipping, verifying them, transferring them into various facilities and authorizing supplier payment.

3. Make: This is basically a step where your company starts fulfilling the request or BUILT for products into finished state to meet planned or actual demand. Schedule activity necessary for production, testing, packaging and preparation for delivery.

4. Deliver: This is also called Logistic Process. This is the processes that provide finished goods and services to meet planned or actual demand, typically including order management, transportation management, and distribution management.

5. Return – This is real pain of SCM model, which defined as processes associated with returning or receiving returned products for any reason.

Typical model can be best described as:



These are considered as stake holder of SCM:

  • Customers
  • Your Company
  • Design Partners
  • Material Suppliers
  • Contract Manufacturers
  • Logistic Providers


These are the main drivers :

  • Production
  • Inventory
  • Location
  • Transportation
  • Information

1. Production
This driver addressing these questions: what products does the market want? How much of which products should be produced and by when?
This activity includes the creation of master production schedules that take into account plant capacities, workload balancing, quality control, and equipment maintenance.

2. Inventory
This driver addressing these questions: What inventory should be stocked at each stage in a supply chain? How much inventory should be held as raw materials, semi finished, or finished goods?
The primary purpose of inventory is to act as a buffer against uncertainty in the supply chain.

3. Location
This driver addressing these questions: Where should facilities for production and inventory storage be located? Where are the most cost efficient locations for production and for storage of inventory? Should existing facilities be used or new ones built?
Once these decisions are made they determine the possible paths available for product to flow through for delivery to the final consumer.

4. Transportation
This driver addressing these questions: How should inventory be moved from one supply chain location to another? Air freight and truck delivery are generally fast and reliable but they are expensive. Shipping by sea or rail is much less expensive but usually involves longer transit times and more uncertainty.

5. Information
This driver addressing these questions: How much data should be collected and how much information should be shared?

Timely and accurate information holds the promise of better coordination and better decision making. With good information, people can make effective decisions about what to produce and how much, about where to locate inventory and how best to transport it.


f1Master Demand Schedule – MDS

The MDS is a consolidation of demand by product and time bucket

f2 Master Production Schedule- MPS

The MPS is a statement of supply required to meet the demand for the items contained in the MDS. The master production schedule defines the anticipated build schedule for all products. The master production schedule also provides the basis for order promising (ATP) function

f3Material Requirements Plan-MRP

The Material requirements planning (MRP) calculates net requirements from gross requirements by evaluating:

  • The master schedule
  • Bills of material
  • Scheduled receipts
  • On-hand inventory balances
  • Lead times
  • Order modifiers

f4Advanced Supply Chain Plan- ASCP

Constrained Based and optimized version of MRP

f5Planned Order

Automatically suggested action from planning engine


The process of “relieving” the forecast to prevent double counting of demand

f7Drop Ship

Having an order ship directly from the vendor to the customer without physically being in your inventory.

f8Vendor Managed Inventory- VMI

The process of giving the vendor the authority and visibility to determine what your inventory should be

f9Customer Owned Inventory- COI

Where you are managing the customers inventory on your premises and supply as required

f10Work Order/Sales Order

The request that you received from the customer for fulfilling there demand.


A typical planning cycle would start by loading the sales orders, forecast and other demand such internal orders into the master demand schedule (MDS). That demand statement would then be used as the schedule that drives the Master Production Schedule (MPS) . Take a note in regular MRP implementations the MPS is used as the schedule for ATP. Once the MPS is reviewed and updated is used as the schedule to drive the MRP process. The result of the MRP process is planned orders and exception messages. When released from MRP the planned orders for “buy” items become requisitions or purchase orders in the purchasing module and the “make” items become discrete jobs in the Work In Process Module. Once the finished goods are received into inventory it is shipped to satisfy customer orders.


Scenario I :Sales Order – Forecast Planning Cycle

Forecast Planning

This is the scenario where normally we are building to stock and satisfying sales order demand from stock. Here you will see the difference as planned orders are released to become purchase requisitions for components and work orders for sub assemblies and finished goods. The finished goods are then shipped to satisfy the sales orders.






Scenario II : Planning – Procurement Cycle

ProcurementCycleIn the Planning-Procurement cycle we normally start where the first part of the planning cycle is complete and we have a planned order for a buy item from MRP. The planned order is released and becomes a requisition or purchase order in the purchasing module. A purchase order is then created from the requisition and sent to the vendor. The vendor would supply the materials. The materials would be received into inventory and the purchase order would be closed.




Scenario III :Planning – Drop Ship Cycle

In the Drop Ship cycle the process is as follows:

  • A sales order is received from the customer.
  • After the sales order is entered a process is run that creates a purchase order that matches the sales orders
  • The item, quantity and required date information on purchase order matches that information on the sales order.
  • The ship to address on the purchase order is the ship to address of the customer.
  • The vendor ships the product directly to your customer. Once the vendor ships the product you receive” the purchase order and that creates the shipping transaction to satisfy the sales order.
  • Matching accounting transactions complete the process


You can also see technical details for drop ship cycle in my earlier post.

Scenario IV :Planning – WIP Cycle

In the Work In Process cycle after the planning cycle is complete a planned order is released to create a discrete job. Material/components is issued the job or back flushed from inventory. The job is completed from Work In Process to Inventory.


Scenario V : Planning – Outside Processing Cycle

With Outside Processing you could be buying a service, an item or capacity from an outside vendor. The setup for each of these scenarios will be described in the training sessions to follow, however they all follow a similar process. A routing with an outside processing operation is setup.

After the planning cycle is complete a planned order is released to create a discrete job. Once the Discrete job is moved to a outside processing operation, a purchase requisition is triggered. The requisition is imported to Purchasing and a purchase order is created. The details of the discrete job such as job number, assembly number and quantity is tied to the purchase order. The purchase order is sent to the vendor. When the purchase order is received its destination will be shop floor and the assembly will be returned to the next operation on the work order.


This make an end of this discussion. In Next post we will see what are the different subsystem SCM will have and what are the modules which comes under SCM Implementation. Any comment is welcome :)

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Posted in EBS Suite, Functional, Oracle Manufacturing | 27 Comments »Email This Post Email This Post |

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27 Responses
  1. Prativa Says:

    Hi Anand, Thank you so much for these nice articles.

  2. Ak Says:

    very Nice.
    can u send me the Total types of Cycles in SCM?
    If so iam very thankful to you.

  3. Quazi Ahmad Faruque Says:

    Veri nice to learn briefly about SCM

  4. Thambu Says:

    Very simple and good narration of function.


  5. chandru Says:

    nice presentation

  6. sandesh Says:

    Hi Anand,
    Excellent work but can you provide any article on the functional mapping of inventory,BOM,WIP,MRP,Costing,Quality,Purchasing and OM with related to the discrete manufacturing.The article which can cover the maximum functinality to cover the all business processes and also give the navigation path in the sequence to complete the process in EBS.Thanks in advance & waiting for your response.

  7. sajeed Says:

    Excellent work, specially the simple way of explanation makes it so easy to understand. Please keep up the good work !

    Any posts planned on Bill of Material, WIP and Cost Management?

  8. Pankaj Singh Says:

    Hi Anand,

    Excellant work done and knowledge is epitomized & reduced to comprehensive yet concise matter.

  9. Ajit Shirwalkar Says:

    Thank you. I am looking at OSP in OPM – in r12. Where will I get this information. Can you help me in this regard.


  10. Sudhakar Jukanti Says:

    Excellent Blog. Keep going.

  11. Danish Says:

    I have gone through SCM process explanation it is Excellent work. I am looking for student guides for Manufacturing. Could you please help in this regard.


  12. Srini Says:

    Hi Sanjit,

    I have query regarding Dropship Sales Order in case of forcast consumption.

    Please, let me know your valuable suggesstion.


  13. Manjunath Says:

    Hi Anand,

    Neatly describe and very use full article.


  14. alvin Says:

    very informative, simple…. clear. thank you !!!

  15. kartik Says:

    awesome one ….. thanks a lot for this..

  16. Abhi Says:

    Hi, excellent article with crisp and clear understanding.
    Appreciate your hardwork and sharing knowledge.


  17. Renuka Says:

    Nicely and well written article on SCM.. good job

  18. Ram Shankar Kushwaha Says:

    Very good keep it up!


  19. Lakshmi Ramesh Says:

    Nice presentation.Easy to understand narration.Please keep up the good work.

  20. Suyog Says:

    hello Anand,
    I am doing MBA in Operations and Supply chain management from one of the best schools in US. This is all what I have and will be learning for one more year. I want to switch to IT, can u suggest me the areas I should concentrate on? any trainings and job opportunities? Ur help will be greatly appreciated.

  21. Francois Says:

    Good morning,

    I have a problem how to deal with a return to vendor after it was BILLED AND PAID.The system allows you to backout the receipt after it was billed and paid. How should you deal with this?

    Thank you

  22. Sanjil Jain Says:

    Please tell me about the tables of SCM as well. It will be nice if you could provide screen shots for SCM product. Tell me about SCM responsibility to be added as I am from HRMS and need to learn SCM as well.

  23. pakala ramu Says:

    please advise the navigation of oracle supply chain management.

  24. nayudu Says:

    if u don t mind pl s give me a brief e with scm

  25. Biren Shah Says:

    Very well eplained!

  26. chs Says:

    Hi Anand… Your definitions and explanations are so simple.. Gr8 job. Thank you very much for sharing your knowledge.

  27. Sanjay Says:

    I was always confused about SCM, but first time somebody has made me understand SCM in 5 mins… YOU ARE GREAT! I really want to thank you!!!!!

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